Growth Management Initiative
Measure U was an initiative approved by the voters of Redlands in 1997 to enact several principles of managed development within the City of Redlands. The principles in Measure U have been incorporated throughout the new 2035 General Plan, as well as several sections of the Redlands Municipal Code.
An Initiative Ordinance of the People of Redlands Establishing Principles of Managed Development
Election of 11/04/1997; Certification on 12/02/1997; Effective on 12/12/1997
The people of the City of Redlands do hereby ordain as follows:
Section 1: Purpose and Findings
A. The purpose and intent of this initiative measure is to establish comprehensive and inviolable principles of managed development for the City of Redlands that will preserve, enhance and maintain the special quality of life valued by this community. The principles of managed development established by this initiative measure assure that future development within the City of Redlands occurs in a way that promotes the social and economic well-being of the entire community.
B. The unique character of the City of Redlands as a quiet university town surrounded by agricultural and citrus producing lands is cherished by its residents. Residents of Redlands perceive the City as a community of homes where grown children are eager to return to raise their families.
C. The residents of the City of Redlands particularly value the quality of education provided to children in this community. Redlands schools have received some of the most coveted awards granted by the State of California for excellence in education. Property values within the City of Redlands have remained strong because of the strength of the Redlands public school system. Uncontrolled high density urban development will result in overcrowding of public school facilities and undue burdens on other public school resources that will have a deleterious effect on the quality of education that can be provided. Unless such growth is properly managed, taxpayers will be forced to choose between paying higher taxes to expand public school facilities and services, or accepting a dramatic reduction in the quality of education provided in this community.
D. The residents of the City of Redlands view undeveloped areas in San Timoteo Canyon as a prime resource for water conservation, recreational and equestrian uses and as a wildlife refuge. Because of the unique nature of this area and its fragile ecology, strict limitations on residential density and careful planning are mandatory if the area is to be retained in as natural a state as possible. Its potential for use as part of a regional flood control system must only go forward with a creative and environmentally sensitive approach in design so that development of any sort preserves this resource for the community.
E. The churches, private and public schools, including the University of Redlands, existing hospitals and existing public recreational and social facilities owned and operated by organizations such as the YMCA and the YWCA in the City of Redlands are highly valued educational, social and cultural resources to the community and its youth that promote the health, safety and welfare of the City. Accordingly, to the extent that expansion of existing facilities or development of sites owned by such entities as of March 1, 1997, provides only dormitory, staff housing or senior congregate care facilities and is otherwise non-residential in nature and furthers the primary institutional purposes of those entities, such institutions are exempt from certain provisions of this initiative measure.
F. Construction of new infill residential development on existing lots of record as of March 1, 1997, rehabilitation, remodeling and additions to existing single family residential structures, and reconstruction or replacement of any uses to the same density, intensity and classification of use as exists on the Effective Date of this measure are of only minimal concern to the residents of the City of Redlands and are therefore exempt from the provisions of this initiative measure.
G. Preserving the character of Redlands for future generations requires sound development policies and standards that control urban growth so that it occurs in a way that preserves and enhances the quality of life now enjoyed by residents of the City of Redlands.
H. High density residential developments approved in recent years, comprised primarily of apartment buildings and other multi-family projects, have encouraged a more transient and mobile population in Redlands that has in turn led to spiraling crime rates, overcrowded schools, and an overall degradation of the quality of life valued in Redlands. Tax rates have been increased to cover the costs of providing police and fire services and bond issues have been repeatedly submitted to the electorate to construct new school facilities to meet the needs of a burgeoning community.
I. Uncontrolled high density urban development will permanently alter the character of the City of Redlands and threaten the public health, safety and welfare by causing increased traffic congestion, associated air pollution, noise, and higher crime rates. Costly expansion of public facilities and services, including police and fire services, will be required to meet the needs of a rapidly urbanizing community. This will create inevitable conflicts between urban and agricultural uses within the City of Redlands and will permanently alter the quality of life experienced by its residents.
J. This initiative measure is consonant with and furthers the purpose and intent of Proposition R, approved by the voters in 1978, and Measure N, approved by the voters in 1987 with regard to the preservation of agricultural land. In addition, it furthers the explicit policy of the State of California set forth in California Government Code Section 51220 which reads in relevant part as follows:
“. . . [T]he discouragement of premature and unnecessary conversion of agricultural land to urban uses is a matter of public interest and will be of benefit to urban dwellers themselves in that it will discourage discontiguous urban development patterns which unnecessarily increase the costs of community services to community residents.
. . . [I]n a rapidly urbanizing society agricultural lands have a definite public value as open space, and the preservation in agricultural production of such lands, the use of which may be limited under the provisions of this chapter, constitutes an important physical, social, esthetic and economic asset to existing or pending urban or metropolitan developments.”
K. This initiative measure continues to allow sufficient development of housing consistent with existing zoning within the City of Redlands to meet the City’s regional fair share housing obligations for the foreseeable future.
L. This initiative measure establishes principles of managed development within the City of Redlands to accommodate growth over time in a manner that will not lead to a deterioration of the quality of life now enjoyed by the citizens of Redlands and that promotes the public health, safety and welfare.
Section 2-A: Principles of Managed Development
A. Establishment of New Section
“1A.0 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGED DEVELOPMENT”
To effect the purpose of this measure and to address its findings, the existing general plan as adopted by the Redlands City Council on October 17, 1995, as amended through March 1, 1997 (the “Redlands General Plan”) is hereby amended by the addition of the following section “1A.0 Principles of Managed Development” to appear after section “1.0 Setting and Organization” and before section “2.0 Growth Management Element”:
“1A.0 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGED DEVELOPMENT
1A.10 PRINCIPLE ONE - The cost of infrastructure required to mitigate the effects of new development shall be paid by that new development.
(a) Development Fee Policy- In accord with the provisions of California Government Code Sections 66000 et seq., all development projects as defined therein shall be required to pay development fees to cover 100% of their pro rata share of the cost of any public infrastructure, facilities or services, including without limitation police and fire services, necessitated as a result of such development. The City Council shall set and determine development fees sufficient to cover 100% of the estimated cost of such public infrastructure, facilities and services based on appropriate cost-benefit analyses as required by the provisions of California law.
(b) Socio-Economic Cost/Benefit Study and Findings Required- Every development project proposal requiring a General Plan Amendment, Zoning Amendment, Subdivision Map, Specific Plan or, for projects involving structures larger than 5,000 square feet, Conditional Use Permit approval, shall submit a socio-economic analysis and cost/benefit study, which shall also be included in all environmental documents submitted to the extent permitted by law, identifying the source of funding for necessary public infrastructure and reflecting the effect of such development on the City, as part of the application process. The City Council shall publish notice of and hold at least one public hearing at which the public may appear and be heard to consider the socio-economic cost/benefit study. Approval of the development project shall only occur if the socio-economic study finds and determines to the satisfaction of the City Council that the development project 1) will not create unmitigated physical blight within the City or overburden public services, including without limitation the sufficiency of police and fire protection, and 2) the benefit of the development project to the City outweighs any direct cost to the City that may result. The City Council may, however, approve a development project for which the socio-economic study fails to make the required findings or determinations if the City Council finds and determines upon a 4/5ths vote of its total authorized membership that the benefits to the City from the development project outweigh the negative socio-economic effects that may result.
c) Impacts of New Development on Public Schools Shall be Mitigated – A mandatory component of the socio-economic cost/benefit studies shall be an analysis of the effect of the proposed development on public school facilities and resources, and shall include proposed measures to mitigate any identified adverse impacts on school facilities to the greatest extent permitted under California law.
1A.20 PRINCIPLE TWO – Development within the planning area and sphere of influence of the City of Redlands shall conform to development standards within the City.
(a) Development Agreements- All development agreements entered into by the City and developers pursuant to California Government Code Sections 65864 et seq. after the Effective Date of this initiative measure as defined in Section 3 hereof, shall conform to the policies contained in the Redlands General Plan.
(b) Extension of Public Utilities Outside the City Limits- No extension of City-provided utility services to areas outside the City limits shall occur until such areas are properly annexed to the City, except that utility services may be extended to areas outside the City limits without prior annexation if all of the following conditions are met:
- The area to be served is not contiguous to the City of Redlands; and,
- The City and the land owner have entered into a properly recorded and binding pre-annexation agreement establishing covenants running with the land that assure full compliance with all development standards of the City of Redlands, payment of all capital improvement and other development fees which would be applicable to the property if it were within the City limits at the time of extension of such services, and immediate processing of annexation to the City at the City’s request; and,
- The land owner agrees as a condition of extension of utility facilities to serve the proposed development to pay the full cost of such extension of such utility facilities.
1A.30 PRINCIPLE THREE - Land use classifications set forth in the Redlands General Plan provide for an appropriate range of densities for residential development and intensity of commercial and industrial development in the City of Redlands.
(a) Number of Land Use Classifications and Density Standards Shall Not Be IncreasedThe density standards set forth in Paragraph 4.40, “Residential Land Use Classifications,” of Section 4.0, Land Use Element, of the Redlands General Plan shall not be increased, and no new residential land use classification shall be added, without a vote of the people.
(b) Prohibition on Transfers of Density- In order to assure that development occurs in a rational way, no transfer of residential development rights from lands other than those designated for single family residential shall be permitted, and then such transfers of single family residential density shall only be permitted to create or preserve agricultural, open space, school or park uses.
1A.40 PRINCIPLE FOUR – Agricultural uses of land are important to the culture, economy and stability of the City of Redlands and shall be preserved to the greatest extent possible consistent with the will of the people as expressed in Proposition R and Measure N, and consistent with the policies of the State of California set forth in Government Code Section 51220.
1A.50 PRINCIPLE FIVE – Preservation of San Timoteo Canyon as a water conservation, recreational, equestrian and wildlife refuge resource for residents of the City of Redlands is essential to the health, safety and general welfare of the community. Development in this area shall only occur in a manner that preserves the area in as natural a state as possible, whether such development is for residential, commercial or flood control purposes.
1A.60 PRINCIPLE SIX – Limitations on traffic levels of service and use of designated roadways, restrictions on permanent outdoor advertising signs and the proliferation of billboards, imposition of reasonable noise standards in residential areas and control of slope densities are essential to managing growth within the City by preventing undue urbanization and its attendant urban blight, the degradation of public services and the over-intensive development of land.
(a) Levels of Traffic Service throughout the City Shall Be Maintained- To assure the adequacy of various public services and to prevent degradation of the quality of life experienced by the citizens of Redlands, all new development projects shall assure by appropriate mitigation measures that, at a minimum, traffic levels of service are maintained at a minimum of LOS C throughout the City, except where the current level of service is lower than LOS C, or as provided in Section 5.20 of the Redlands General Plan where a more intense LOS is specifically permitted. In any location where the level of service is below LOS C at the time an application for a development project is submitted, mitigation measures shall be imposed on that development project to assure, at a minimum, that the level of traffic service is maintained at levels of service that are no worse than those existing at the time an application for development is filed, except as provided in Section 5.20b.
(b) Collector and Local Street Standards Shall Be Maintained- No development project shall be approved which will generate traffic volume on residential collector streets or local residential streets in excess of the standards set forth in the Redlands General Plan at Sections 5.32a and 5.32b. Roadways shall be designed and designated for use in accord with the standards set forth in GP Figure 5.3 of the Redlands General Plan.
c) Circulation Patterns Shall Protect Residential Neighborhoods from Increased Traffic Congestion- Traffic circulation patterns shall be established and maintained within the City in a manner that protects the character of residential neighborhoods as set forth at Sections 5.30i, 5.30j and 5.30k of the Redlands General Plan. Major infrastructure improvements within the City designed to accommodate regional traffic needs shall be designed, constructed and financed in a manner which discourages increased traffic flows through residential neighborhoods, encourages traffic flows to existing freeway systems and makes prudent use of federal and local taxpayer dollars. The City Council shall coordinate with the San Bernardino Association of Governments (SANBAG), the Inland Valley Development Authority (IVDA) and the City of San Bernardino with regard to all Santa Ana river crossings, except the Orange Street crossing, to assure the development of California Street/Mountain View Avenue as a major arterial providing access to the San Bernardino International Airport.
(d) Designated Scenic Highways within the City Shall Be Maintained- Where improvement of any scenic or historic drive, highway or roadway is required, the City shall take all action authorized by California law to ensure that those roadways retain the characteristics which justify their designation as scenic or historic roadways, including without limitation, capacity restrictions.
(e) Permanent Outdoor Commercial Signs Shall Be Limited in Size- To accommodate the need for permanent outdoor commercial signs in a manner that provides the least intrusion on the community and the least risk of visual blight, no permanent outdoor commercial sign shall be approved that exceeds 120 square feet in size except by variance and/or conditional use permit approved by a four-fifths (4/5) vote of the entire authorized membership of the City Council. No “readerboards” or “billboards” shall be permitted.
(f) Noise Standards in Residential Areas Shall Be Established to Protect Residential Use of that Land- Among the most damaging aspects of high density residential development is a degradation of residential noise standards. Accordingly, noise standards must be stringent enough to assure residents reasonable quietude in their homes.
(g) Slope Density Limitations Shall Be Maintained- To preserve the hillside vistas and character of the City of Redlands, no development project shall be approved in the Hillside Overlay areas that is inconsistent with the slope density standards set forth in Section 4.42m of the Redlands General Plan.”
Section 2-B: Exemptions
- Vested Projects.This initiative measure shall not apply to or affect any property on which a vested right has been legally perfected and acquired prior to the Effective Date pursuant to state law.
- Special Categories of Development.The provisions of this initiative measure shall not apply to the following:
- New individual infill construction of single family homes on existing lots of record bounded by developed property as of March 1, 1997;
- Rehabilitation, remodeling or additions to existing single family residential structures;
- Reconstruction or replacement of any uses to the same density, intensity and classification of use as existed on the Effective Date, including legal non-conforming uses;
- Development directly related to proposed Metrolink stations in the City of Redlands, including one at the University of Redlands;
- New development projects subject to the Downtown Specific Plan 45, upon a four-fifths (4/5ths) vote of the total authorized membership of the City Council; and
- Special, temporary or occasional uses of public streets including parades, local sporting and cultural events, graduation ceremonies, approved school activities and other occasional public gatherings.
- Exemptions from Traffic and Socio-Economic Study Requirements Only.Development projects that directly further the primary institutional purposes of churches, hospitals, schools (including private schools and universities), and organizations such as the YMCA and YWCA, on sites held by such entities as of March 1, 1997, are exempt from the traffic level of service requirements and the requirement for a socio-economic study established by this initiative measure so long as such development projects are either 1) non-residential in character, or 2) provide only dormitory, staff housing or senior congregate care facilities for those exempt entities.
Section 2-C: General Plan Internal Text Amendments Conforming to and Implementing Principles of Managed Development
To implement the principles of managed development established by the people by adopting this initiative measure, certain provisions of the text, figures and tables of the Redlands General Plan are hereby amended to assure internal consistency as required by California law. In addition, this measure reaffirms and ratifies certain provisions of the Redlands General Plan so that in the future any amendment to the Redlands General Plan must be consistent with those provisions unless such provisions are repealed by a vote of the people. Text additions are shown in underline deletions are shown in strike-out
1. SECTION 2.0, GROWTH MANAGEMENT ELEMENT
1. The first paragraph following Table 2.1 in the Section entitled “Population” is hereby amended as follows:
“As can be seen, population in the City of Redlands has grown over the last twenty-four (24) years. Based on Department of Finance data, the average annual growth rate between 1980-90 and 1990-94 was 3.8 and 2.4 percent, respectively. Based on existing population, projected number of dwelling units and persons per household, although it is impossible to predict the exact population of the City of Redlands under the provisions of this General Plan it is estimated that the City of Redlands could will have a population of 101,644 at buildout. It is anticipated, however, that implementation of this growth management element and other provisions of the General Plan will reduce the likely number of residents at buildout to approximately 90,000.”
2. The first paragraph in the Section entitled “Housing” is hereby amended as follows:
“According to the 1990 Census, the Planning Area (City of Redlands and Sphere of Influence) had a total of 26,362 dwelling units. Between 1991 and 1994, the City of Redlands recorded an increase of 544 dwelling units, an increase of 2.0 percent, bringing the total to 26,906 . It is projected that total housing units for the City of Redlands at buildout of the General Plan could be as many as 36,414. It is anticipated, however, that implementation of this growth management element and other provisions of the General Plan will significantly reduce the likely number of dwelling units at buildout to approximately 32,000.”
2. SECTION 4.0, LAND USE ELEMENT
New GP Figure 4.5 which is attached to this initiative measure as Attachment 1 is hereby incorporated herein by this reference and is hereby added to section “4.0 Land Use” of the Redlands General Plan as an unnumbered page following GP Figure 4.4.
1.The first sentence of the paragraph entitled “Population and Job Holding Capacity” is hereby amended as follows:
”The Planning Area at General Plan Buildout will accommodate approximately 90,000 residents and enough nonresidential floor area for more than 100,000 jobs.”
2. The first sentence of the first paragraph of Section 4.30 Land Use Classifications is hereby amended as follows:
“The General Plan Diagram, GP Figure 4.1, depicts 15 16 categories of land use: rural living; very low density; low density; low medium density; high density; office; commercial; commercial/industrial; light industrial; public/institutional; parks/golf courses; agriculture; flood control/construction aggregates, conservation/habitat preservation; resource preservation; and resource conservation.”
The definitions of “Medium Density” and “High Density” set forth in Paragraph 4.40, “Residential Land Use Classifications,” are hereby amended as follows: “Medium Density - The Medium Density category designates from 0 to 15.0 units per gross acre. The intent of the Medium Density land use category is to provide areas for the development of attached, detached and/or mixed residential uses with a range of densities and housing types. Areas designated Medium Density are generally more suitable for development in the low- to mid-level of the permitted density range for this category.
High Density- The High Density category designates from 0 to 27 units per gross acre. The intent of the High Density land use category is to provide for the development of attached, detached and/or mixed residential uses with a range of densities and housing types. Areas designated High Density are generally more suitable for development at the mid- to high-level of the density range for this category. No proposed development project with density levels in excess of 18 dwelling units to the acre or a structure in excess of two stories or greater than 35 feet in height shall be approved unless the following mandatory findings are made and the development project is approved by four-fifths (4/5) vote of the total authorized membership of the City Council:
- There are substantial and overriding economic or social benefits to the City and its residents and taxpayers from the proposed density or height increase.
- The proposed density or height increase will not cause adverse environmental impacts, either individually or cumulatively, directly or indirectly.
- The proposed density or height increase will not have a growth-inducing effect on other property.
- The resulting use will be compatible with uses on adjacent land.
- The proposed density or height increase will not require substantial expansion of public infrastructure, facilities or services.”
1. Section 4.40q is hereby amended as follows:
“Plan for a housing mix at buildout consisting of 75 percent single family dwelling units and 25 percent multi-family dwelling units.”
2. The non-italicized portion of Section 4.40s is hereby amended in its entirety as follows:
“No land undeveloped as of March 1, 1997 and designated in whole or in part as “Urban Reserve” or “Urban Reserve (Agricultural)” in the Redlands general plan in effect as of June 1, 1987, and/or any land parcel that was in active agricultural production on November 3, 1986 regardless of zoning, shall be re-designated or rezoned to permit residential density greater than the Estate Residential (R-E) classification, as the same existed on June 1, 1987, in the Redlands City Zoning Ordinance, unless the following mandatory findings are made and the re-designation or rezoning is approved by four-fifths (4/5) vote of the total authorized membership of the City Council.
- There are substantial and overriding economic or social benefits to the City and its residents and taxpayers from the proposed density increase.
- The proposed density increase will not cause adverse environmental impacts, either individually or cumulatively, directly or indirectly.
- The proposed density increase will not convert viable agricultural land to non-agricultural uses.
- The proposed density increase will not have a growth-inducing effect on other property.
- The resulting use will be compatible with uses on adjacent land.
- The proposed density increase will not require substantial expansion of public infrastructure, facilities or services.”
New paragraphs 4.41i and 4.41j are hereby added to Section 4.41, “Southern Area Hills and Canyons (Live Oak and San Timoteo Canyons),” to read as follows:
“4.41i. That portion of San Timoteo Creek, as defined by its floodway easements or flood control fee title, lying within the corporate boundary of the City is hereby declared to be Resource Preservation land and shall be preserved for the purposes of promoting wildlife preservation, open space recreation and water conservation. No fencing or other barriers shall be permitted in this Resource Preservation area that impede or limit access to the free crossing or use of the area by wildlife or its use for open space recreational purposes.
4.41j. All parcels of land encompassed within the area identified on GP Figure 4.5 are subject to the residential density limitations set forth in Section 4.42m and are hereby designated as Resource Preservation as defined in Section 4.96.”
The provisions of Section 4.42m are hereby reaffirmed and ratified as follows:
“4.42m Density within the Southeast Area Plan shall be as follows:
|0 to 15%||1.0 acre|
|>15 to 30%||2.5 acre|
|>30%||10.0 to 5.0 acres”|
The non-italicized portion of Section 4.62b is hereby amended as follows:
“Provide sufficient roadway and intersection capacities to maintain a minimum Level of Service (LOS) C except as provided in policy 5.20b. In areas where the current level of service is below the LOS C standard, provide sufficient roadway and intersection capacities to maintain, at a minimum, the LOS existing as of the time an application for development is filed and to assure that the level of service is not degraded to a reduced LOS except as provided in Section 5.20b.”
A new Section 4.96 entitled “Resource Preservation” is hereby added as follows:
“Resource Preservation.The Resource Preservation designation limits uses in areas which possess a unique character and fragile ecology which are prime resources for water conservation, wildlife preservation, open space recreation and agriculture. Preservation of such lands is essential to the health, safety and welfare of the community. Limited permitted uses include remote commercial recreational facilities, such as equestrian facilities, as envisioned in Section 4.64; postal offices, public safety facilities, educational facilities and public utilities as envisioned in Section 4.94; and open space uses described in Section 4.95. Residential uses are permitted but density shall be limited to that allowed by Section 4.42m to protect the character and ecology of such lands.”
3. SECTION 5.0, CIRCULATION ELEMENT
New GP Figure 5.3 which is attached (to be inserted) to this initiative measure as Attachment 1 is hereby incorporated herein by this reference and is hereby added to section “5.0 Circulation” of the Redlands General Plan as an unnumbered page following GP Figure 5.2. (New GP Figure 5.3 to be inserted.)
Sections 5.20a, 5.20b and 5.20c which are listed as “Guiding Policies: Standards for Traffic Service” are hereby amended as follows:
Maintain LOS C or better as the standard at all intersections presently at LOS C or better.
Within the area identified in GP Figure 5.3, including that unincorporated County area identified on GP Figure 5.3 as the “donut hole,” maintain LOS C or better; however, accept a reduced LOS on a case by case basis upon approval by a four-fifths (4/5ths) vote of the total authorized membership of the City Council.
Where the current level of service at a location within the City of Redlands is below the Level of Service (LOS) C standard, no development project shall be approved that cannot be mitigated so that it does not reduce the existing level of service at that location except as provided in Section 5.20b.